Transport

Types of transport:

               Car transport:

     Can not compete among the types of vehicles on a massive inter-regional rail traffic for the following reasons:
– energy and transportation costs;
– lack of a modern network of roads a high level;
– long-range transport.
Scope in Russia: the inner city, suburban and intra transport; transportation srednedalnie distance low-capacity, high-value and perishable goods.

     Advantages:
– High flexibility and efficiency;
– regularity of supply;
– less strict requirements for packaging of goods, compared with other modes of transport;
– the possibility of using different routes and delivery schemes;
– the ability to send goods in small consignments.

     Disadvantages:
– relatively high cost of transportation;
– the urgency of discharge;
– The possibility of pilferage;
– The possibility of theft of motor vehicles;
– a relatively small load;
– depending on season and road conditions.

Rail:

     In Russia, the most effective for the transport of bulk goods on average and long distance with a high concentration flows.
     Rail transport and its advantages:
– Relatively low cost of transportation;
– Well suited for the transport of various loads in all weather conditions;
– The possibility of delivery of goods over long distances;
– Regularity of traffic;
– The possibility of the efficient organization of loading / unloading.

     Rail transport and cons:

– A limited number of carriers;
– Large capital investment in production and technical base;
– High energy transportation;
– Low availability of the end points of sales.

        Maritime transport:

     The largest carrier in international transport. Performs mostly outside of export-import cargo, including all freight in intercontinental communication. The role of transport in inland transportation for the northern and eastern coastal areas of Russia.

     Maritime transport and its advantages:
– Low rates and high carrying capacity
     Maritime transport and its disadvantages:
– Low speed;
– Stringent requirements for packaging and stowage;
– Low frequency of shipments.

                   Air transport:

     Air transport and its advantages:

high speed, the ability to reach remote areas, short routes, high safety of goods. 

     Disadvantages:

expensive fuel

Pipeline transportation is very specialized :

     Pipeline transport and its advantages:

speed, cost-effective way of transportation of liquid energy.

     Cons:

narrow specialization, the dangerous consequences of accidents, the probability of theft is high.

– There is no stock, hence the low cost.

Choose the type of vehicles.

The initial data is the following information:
1) characteristic features of transport.
2) the problem of logistics-related transportation.

Types of vehicles and 6 major factor in their choice:
1) delivery time
2) the frequency of origin of goods
3) the ability to carry different loads
4) the ability to deliver anywhere
5) cost
6) adherence to schedule delivery.

Expert evaluation shows that when you choose types of vehicles, it should first focus on reliability, time and cost..

The system of tariffs for railway transportation.
system of tariffs and 2 of the form:
1) the general system of tariffs

2) the exclusive system of tariffs (which may be privileged and local)


1) General Tariff – the main type of fare, which is determined by the cost of bulk cargo.
2) Fees that are installed with disabilities in the form of special allowances or discounts. They are distributed, usually at specific loads. With the exception of tariffs can be adjusted cost of transport in bulk. Rail transport – a monopolist, therefore, an exceptional tariff system significantly affects the economy. Premium or discount can be for individual regions, goods, seasonal, and in some areas. In addition to freight charges fees train so-called charges, ie fees for additional services associated with the transport of goods (verification, storage, weighing, cleaning cars, freight).
The railway fare applies dvustavochny T = a + B * L
T=a/L+b
Provided the car is a total rate T = (AOn Aille +) + (BB + bil). That’s because in general terms, a system of tariffs for railway transportation.

Tariff system for Car Transport.
Distinguish the following types of tariffs:
1) piecework for cargo

2) the carriage of goods under the fee

3) for the hourly use of cars

4) a system of tariffs for road transport, highlights the form of tariffs – from calculation in kilometers
5) to the stage of rolling stock


The size of the tariff in such a concept as a system of tariffs following factors:
1) the distance of transportation; 2) load weight; 3) Volumetric weight of the cargo;
4) capacity of vehicle; 5) the total mileage;
6) while using the car; 7) the type of car area of transportation and so on.

Tariff system for maritime transport.
Fee for carriage is made either at a fee or for freight rates. If the goods should be in the direction of sustainable flow of cargo, carriage by the system of liner shipping, while the cargo is moving on schedule and is payable on tariff. Tariff system for maritime transport is dependent on many factors: (a kind of voyage, the type of cargo, ship type, flag, an insurance company, etc.)

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